Brahma Viharas

To Drive Out Hatred

“Pañcime, bhikkhave, āghātapaṭivinayā yattha bhikkhuno uppanno āghāto sabbaso paṭivinetabbo. Katame pañca? Yasmiṃ, bhikkhave, puggale āghāto jāyetha, mettā tasmiṃ puggale bhāvetabbā; evaṃ tasmiṃ puggale āghāto paṭivinetabbo. Yasmiṃ, bhikkhave, puggale āghāto jāyetha, karuṇā tasmiṃ puggale bhāvetabbā; evaṃ tasmiṃ puggale āghāto paṭivinetabbo. Yasmiṃ, bhikkhave, puggale āghāto jāyetha, upekkhā tasmiṃ puggale bhāvetabbā; evaṃ tasmiṃ puggale āghāto paṭivinetabbo. Yasmiṃ, bhikkhave, puggale āghāto jāyetha, asatiamanasikāro tasmiṃ puggale āpajjitabbo; evaṃ tasmiṃ puggale āghāto paṭivinetabbo. Yasmiṃ, bhikkhave, puggale āghāto jāyetha, kammassakatā tasmiṃ puggale adhiṭṭhātabbā — ‘kammassako ayamāyasmā kammadāyādo kammayoni kammabandhu kammappaṭisaraṇo, yaṃ kammaṃ karissati kalyāṇaṃ vā pāpakaṃ vā tassa dāyādo bhavissatī’ti; evaṃ tasmiṃ puggale āghāto paṭivinetabbo. Ime kho, bhikkhave, pañca āghātapaṭivinayā, yattha bhikkhuno uppanno āghāto sabbaso paṭivinetabbo”ti.

Bhikkhus, there are five ways of driving out hatred which will drive out any hatred that arises in a bhikkhu. What are the five?

When hatred arises towards a person, one should cultivate lovingkindness toward that person.  In that way one drives out hatred for that person.

When hatred arises towards a person, one should cultivate compassion toward that person.  In that way one drives out hatred for that person.

When hatred arises towards a person, one should cultivate equanimity toward that person.  In that way one drives out hatred for that person.

When hatred arises towards a person, one should pay no mind to that person.  In that way one drives out hatred for that person.

When hatred arises towards a person, one should consider the person’s actions this way: “That person’s bad actions belong to him;  he will inherit the fruits of his actions; his actions are the womb from which he is born;  his actions are his kin; his actions are his shelter;  whatever actions he performs, for good or for evil,  that’s what he’ll inherit.” In that way one drives out hatred for that person.

Indeed, bhikkhus, those are the five ways of driving out hatred which will drive out any hatred that arises in a bhikkhu.

Paṭhamāaghātapaṭivinaya Sutta, AN 5.161

Good and Bad Equanimity

“Upekkhaṃpāhaṃ, devānaminda, duvidhena vadāmi sevitabbampi, asevitabbampīti iti kho panetaṃ vuttaṃ, kiñcetaṃ paṭicca vuttaṃ? Tattha yaṃ jaññā upekkhaṃ ‘Imaṃ kho me upekkhaṃ sevato akusalā dhammā abhivaḍḍhanti, kusalā dhammā parihāyantī’ti, evarūpā upekkhā na sevitabbā. Tattha yaṃ jaññā upekkhaṃ ‘Imaṃ kho me upekkhaṃ sevato akusalā dhammā parihāyanti, kusalā dhammā abhivaḍḍhantī’ti, evarūpā upekkhā sevitabbā. Tattha yaṃ ce savitakkaṃ savicāraṃ, yaṃ ce avitakkaṃ avicāraṃ, ye avitakke avicāre, te paṇītatare. Upekkhaṃpāhaṃ, devānaminda, duvidhena vadāmi sevitabbampi, asevitabbampīti iti yaṃ taṃ vuttaṃ, idametaṃ paṭicca vuttaṃ.

Lord of the devas, it is said that there are two kinds of equanimity – one to be practiced, and one not to be practiced, but why is this said? When one knows of equanimity, “When I practice equanimity in this way, unskillful mind states increase and skillful mind states decrease,” that kind of equanimity is not to be practiced. When one knows of equanimity, “When I practice equanimity in this way, unskillful mind states decrease and skillful mind states increase,” that kind of equanimity is to be practiced.  And this may be accompanied by reasoning and investigation, or free of reasoning and investigation;  when free of reasoning and investigation,  you cross over into the most excellent.  Thus it is said, Lord of the devas, that there are two kinds of equanimity – one to be practiced, and one not to be practiced, and this is why it is said.

Sakkapañha Sutta, DN 21.5

Like a Rhino

In this stanza from the Sutta Nipata, the Buddha proclaims that through the vulnerability of the Brahma Viharas, one gains the ultimate protection:

Mettaṃ upekkhaṃ karuṇaṃ vimuttiṃ, āsevamāno muditañca kale
Sabbena lokena avirujjhamāno, eko care khaggavisāṇakappo.

Frequenting in due time the release of metta, upekkha, karuna and mudita,
One wanders the whole world unopposed, like a rhinoceros.

Khaggavisana Sutta, Sutta Nipata 1:3

In today's Pali Exercise from the Sutta Nipata, the Buddha proclaims that through the vulnerability of the Brahma Viharas, one gains the ultimate protection:

Mettaṃ upekkhaṃ karuṇaṃ vimuttiṃ, āsevamāno muditañca kale
Sabbena lokena avirujjhamāno, eko care khaggavisāṇakappo. 

Frequenting in due time the release of metta, upekkha, karuna and mudita,
One wanders the whole world unopposed, like a rhinoceros.

Khaggavisana Sutta, Sutta Nipata 1:3